Laksamana Malahayati, Sosok Perempuan Didikan Khilafah

MUSTANIR.net – Lautan adalah saksi keperkasaannya membela kedaulatan. Meski nyawa taruhannya, ia tidak gentar bergerak dengan kapal perang dan pedang yang mengancam ke arah armada penjajah.

Namanya Keumalahayati atau lebih dikenal sebagai Malahayati. Ia terlahir di Tanah Rencong, Aceh Darussalam (1550 M). Ayahnya adalah Laksamana Mahmud Syah. Kakeknya dari garis ayahnya merupakan Laksamana Muhammad Said Syah, putra dari Sultan Salahuddin Syah yang memerintah di Aceh sekitar 1530-1539 M. Sedangkan, Sultan Salahuddin Syah merupakan putra dari Sultan Ibrahim Ali Mughayat Syah (1513-1530 M ada pula yang menyebut 1514-1528 M), pendiri Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam.

Sang Admiral Wanita

Malahayati juga tercatat dalam sejarah sebagai laksamana perempuan pertama di dunia yang sukses menghalau Portugis dan Belanda masuk ke Aceh. Ini sesuai catatan seorang wanita Belanda, Marie van Zuchtelen, dalam bukunya berjudul Vrouwlijke Admiral Malahayati (Malahayati, Sang Admiral Wanita).

Keberanian dan kepiawaiannya dalam membela tanah airnya dari penjajah Portugis dan Belanda tidak diragukan. Pada November 2017, ia beroleh gelar Pahlawan Nasional serta diabadikan menjadi nama jalan, rumah sakit, institusi pendidikan, pelabuhan, dan kapal perang KRI Malahayati di negeri ini.

Gemblengan Akademi Militer Ma’had Baitul Maqdis

Pendidikan yang dienyam Malayahati didapatkan dari sekolah agama Islam di meunasah (madrasah) dan dayah (pesantren). Setelah selesai dari sana, ia ingin mewujudkan cita-citanya sebagai pelaut tangguh sehingga ia pun mendaftarkan diri dalam penerimaan calon taruna di Akademi Militer Ma’had Baitul Maqdis di Bitay, Aceh Darussalam. Akademi ini terdiri dari dua departemen, yaitu Angkatan Laut dan Angkatan Darat yang memuat kurikulum strategi peperangan, cara membuat meriam, kerajinan emas, berbagai jenis benda berseni, dan jenis senjata lainnya.

Ma’had ini didirikan atas permintaan Kesultanan Aceh di masa Sultan Saidil Mukammil Alauddin Ri’ayat Syah (1589-1604 M) kepada Khilafah ‘Utsmaniyyah di masa Sultan Selim II. Ma’had Baitul Maqdis didukung oleh 100 instruktur Angkatan Laut yang sengaja didatangkan dari Khilafah ‘Utsmaniyyah. Instruktur-instruktur ini adalah para perwira khilafah yang terlatih.

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dan Khilafah ‘Utsmaniyyah memang sejak lama memiliki hubungan yang sangat baik dan saling bahu membahu dalam menghalau penjajah serta menyebarkan ajaran Islam. Dari sinilah Kesultanan Aceh mendapatkan banyak bantuan serta pengetahuan militer dan persenjataan yang sangat berpengaruh kuat dalam strategi militer Aceh. Bahkan, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam pun mengakui Khilafah ‘Utsmaniyyah sebagai penguasa wilayah kaum muslim.

Sebagai sosok yang mewarisi darah bahari ditambah tempaan Islam yang mengajarkan amar makruf nahi mungkar, Malahayati memiliki semangat tinggi untuk melawan Portugis dan Belanda yang sering mengganggu. Pada awalnya, ia dipercaya sebagai kepala pengawal dan protokol di dalam dan luar istana, berpasangan dengan Cut Limpah yang bertugas sebagai petugas Dinas Rahasia dan Intelijen Negara.

Tegas dan Cekatan

Berbekal pendidikannya, setelah lulus dari Departemen Angkatan Laut di Ma’had Baitul Maqdis, Malahayati diangkat menjadi Komandan Protokol Istana Darud—Dunia Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, begitu juga dengan suami yang diangkat menjadi laksamana.

Sumber catatan dari seorang nakhoda kapal Belanda yang berkebangsaan Inggris, John Davis, mengungkapkan fakta bahwa di bawah kepemimpinan militer Laksamana Malahayati, Kesultanan Aceh memiliki perlengkapan armada laut. Malahayati adalah sosok yang tegas dan cekatan dalam mengoordinasi pasukannya di laut, mengawasi berbagai pelabuhan yang berada di bawah penguasaan syahbandar, serta secara saksama mengawasi kapal-kapal milik Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam.

Bahkan, dalam suatu pertempuran di Teluk Haru, Kesultanan Aceh berhasil menghalau Portugis. Namun sayang, suami Malahayati gugur di palagan (medan pertempuran, ed.) Selat Malaka tersebut bersama sekitar seribu orang Aceh lainnya.

Membentuk Inong Balee, Laskar Janda para Pejuang

Setelah suaminya gugur, Malahayati berinisiatif memohon kepada Sultan Mukammil untuk membentuk armada perang yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya. Prajuritnya adalah para janda pejuang Aceh yang gugur dalam pertempuran di Selat Malaka itu, yang dinamai Laskar Inong Balee dengan anggota berjumlah 2.000 orang.

Saat itu, Kesultanan Aceh tengah meningkatkan keamanan karena gangguan Portugis sehingga usul membentuk armada dikabulkan. Malahayati dijadikan Panglima Armada Inong Balee atau Armada Perempuan Janda. Pasukan itu bermarkas di Teluk Lamreh Kraung Raya. Benteng pertahanannya, Kuto Inong Balee, dibangun dengan tinggi sekitar tiga meter, lengkap dengan meriam tempur.

Armada ini menyusun strategi  perang di darat dan di laut. Di lautan, pasukan Inong Balee dilengkapi seratus lebih kapal perang. Akibatnya armada asing yang melintas di Selat Malaka pun menjadi gentar.

Jenderal Belanda Tewas di Tangan Malahayati

Pada 21 Juni 1599, pasukan ekspedisi dari Belanda yang baru selesai berperang dengan Kesultanan Banten tiba di Aceh. Rombongan yang dipimpin Cornelis dan Frederick de Houtman disambut baik. Namun secara licik, armada asing itu justru menyerbu pelabuhan Aceh.

Malahayati dan armadanya berhasil menghantam kapal perang Belanda yang dipimpin oleh Jenderal Cornelis de Houtman yang terkenal kejam. Bahkan, Cornelis de Houtman tewas di tangan Malahayati pada pertempuran satu lawan satu di geladak kapal pada 11 September 1599.

Adiknya, Frederich de Houtman tertawan dan dipenjarakan selama kurang lebih dua tahun. Dari sinilah akhirnya Malahayati diberi gelar laksamana (admiral).

Kesultanan Aceh dengan Laskar Inong Balee pimpinan Malahayati menjadi garda terdepan perlawanan dan pasukan Belanda yang datang berhasil dikalahkan. Namun pada 21 November 1600, Belanda kembali menyerang di bawah komando Paulus van Caerden. Pasukan ini menjarah dan menenggelamkan kapal-kapal penuh rempah di pantai Aceh.

Pada Juni 1601, Malahayati berhasil menangkap Laksamana Belanda, Jacob van Neck, yang tengah berlayar di pantai Aceh. Setelah berbagai insiden, Belanda mengirim surat diplomatik dan memohon maaf kepada Kesultanan Aceh melalui utusan Maurits van Oranjesent.

Negosiator Ulung

Selanjutnya pada Agustus, Malahayati memimpin Aceh untuk berunding dengan dua utusan Maurits van Oranjesent, Laksamana Laurens Bicker dan Gerard de Roy. Pada kesempatan ini Malahayati menunjukkan kemampuannya sebagai negosiator ulung. Mereka sepakat melakukan gencatan senjata. Belanda juga harus membayar 50 ribu gulden sebagai kompensasi penyerbuan yang dilakukan Van Caerden.

Aksi elegan Malahayati sampai juga ke telinga Ratu Elizabeth, penguasa Inggris. Akibatnya negeri raksasa itu memilih cara damai saat hendak melintas Selat Malaka. Pada Juni 1602, Ratu Elizabeth memilih mengutus James Lancaster untuk mengirim surat kepada Sultan Aceh agar membuka jalur pelayaran menuju Jawa.

Malahayati disebut masih memimpin pasukan Aceh menghadapi armada Portugis di bawah Alfonso de Castro yang menyerbu Kreung Raya Aceh pada Juni 1606.

Didikan Kekhalifahan

Sejumlah sumber sejarah menyebutkan Malahayati gugur dalam pertempuran tersebut. Ia dimakamkan di lereng Bukit Kota Dalam, sebuah desa nelayan yang berjarak 34 kilometer dari Banda Aceh, tidak jauh dari Benteng Inong Balee.

Kiprah Malahayati untuk membela tanah airnya dari usikan para penjajah, tidak lepas dari peran sentral khilafah yang mendidiknya. Semangat jihad dan akidah Islam yang tertancap menjadikannya sosok tangguh yang tidak lelah berjuang memberikan segenap potensinya. Hingga jiwa terlepas dari raga. Wallahua’lam. []

Ruruh Anjar

Sumber:

  1. “Turki Utsmani Kirim 17 Kapal Perang ke Aceh Darussalam.” Republika.co.id. 2 Januari 2020
  2. “Ma’had Baitul Maqdis Akademi Maritim di masa Kejayaan Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam.” Nusantaramaritimnews. 8 Juli 2014.
  3. “Masa Gadis Malahayati, Laksamana Laut Dari Aceh.” Inilah.com. 20 April 2016.
  4. “Laksamana Malahayati Layak Ditetapkan Sebagai Pahlawan Nasional.” Puspiatur.wordpress.com. 3 Agustus 2017
  5. “Malahayati Admiral Perempuan Pertama di Dunia.” bin.go.id. 17 September 2014.
  6. “Ekspedisi Khilafah ‘Utsmani ke Aceh.” Mediaumat.news. 9 Agustus 2017.

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